LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS OF WORKS AND AUTHORS

N. B.—The letters between ( ) refer to the Classification of Works and Authors.

A.A. = Antiquitates Americanae. (E. II.)
Ad. = Arinbjarnar-drápa. (A. III.)
Akv. = Atla-kviða. (A. II.)
Al. = Alexanders Saga. (G. I.)
Alg. = Algorismus. (H. III.)
Alm. = Alvís-mál. (A. I.)
Am. = Atla-mál. (A. II.)
Anal. = Analecta. (D. II.)
Andr. = Andreas Saga. (F. III.)
Anecd. = Anecdoton. (H. II.)
Anm. = Íslenzkir Annálar. (D. IV.)
Ant. S. = Antonius Saga. (F. III.)
Arna-Magn. or A.M. = Arna-Magnaeanus.
Arons S. = Arons Saga. (D. III.)
Art. = Artus-kappa Sögur. (G. II.)
Aug. = Augustinus Saga. (F. III.)
A.Þ. = Arfa-þáttr. (B. I.)
Ágr. = Ágrip. (E. I.)
Ám. = Auðunnar-máldagi. (J. I.)
Árna S. = Árna Saga. (D. III.)
Band. = Banda-manna Saga. (D. II.)
Barl. = Barlaams Saga. (F. III.)
Baut. = Bautil. (K. II.)
Bárð. = Bárðar Saga. (D. V.)
Bb. = Búnaðar-bálkr.
Bev. = Bevus Saga. (G. II.)
Bjarn. = Bjarnar Saga. (D. II.)
Bjarni = Bjarni Thorarinson.
Björn = Björn Halldórsson.
B.K. = Björgynjar Kálfskinn. (J. II.)
Bkv. = Brynhildar-kviða. (A. II.)
Blas. = Blasius Saga. (F. III.)
Bm. = Bjarka-mál. (A. II.)
Boldt = Boldt. (J. II.)
Boll. = Bolla-þáttr. (D. V.)
Brandkr. = Brandkrossa-þáttr. (D. V.)
Bret. = Breta Sögur. (G. I.)
Brocm. = Brocman. (K. II.)
Bs. = Biskupa Sögur. (D. III.)
Bt. = Bauga-tal. (B. I.)
Bær. = Bærings Saga. (G. II.)
Clar. = Clarus Saga. (G. II.)
Clem. = Clements Saga. (F. III.)
Darr. = Darraðar-ljóð. (A. III.)
D.I. = Diplomatarium Islandicum. (J. I.)
Dipl. = Diplomatarium. (J. I.)
D.N. = Diplomatarium Norvagicum. (J. II.)
Dropl. = Droplaugar-sona Saga. (D. II.)
Eb. = Eyrbyggja Saga. (D. II.)
Edda = Edda. (C. I.)
Eg. = Egils Saga. (D. II.)
El. = Elis Saga. (G. II.)
Eluc. = Elucidarium. (F. II.)
Em. = Eiriks-mál. (A. III.)
Esp. = Espólin Árbækr Íslands.
Fagrsk. = Fagrskinna. (E. I.)
Fas. = Fornaldar Sögur. (C. II.)
Fb. = Flateyjar-bók. (E. I.)
Fbr. = Fóstbræðra Saga. (D. II.)
Fél. = Félags-rit.
Finnb. = Finnboga Saga. (D. V.)
Fkv. = Forn-kvæði.
Flóam. S. = Flóamanna Saga. (E. I.)
Flóv. = Flóvents Saga. (G. II.)
Fm. = Fafnis-mál. (A. II.)
Fms. = Fornmanna Sögur. (E. I.)
Fr. = Fritzner's Dictionary, 1867.
Frump. = Frumpartar.
Fs. = Forn-sögur. (D. II.)
Fsm. = Fjölsvinns-mál. (A. II.)
Fspl. = Forspjalls-ljóð. (A. I.)
F.Þ. = Festa-þáttr. (B. I.)
Fær. = Færeyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Gautr. = Gautreks Saga. (C. II.)
Gg. = Grógaldr. (A. II.)
Gh. = Guðrúnar-hefna. (A. II.)
Gísl. = Gísla Saga. (D. II.)
Gkv. = Guðrúnar-kviða. (A. II.)
Glúm. = Víga-Glúms Saga. (D. II.)
Gm. = Grimnis-mál. (A. I.)
Grág. = Grágás. (B. I.)
Greg. = Gregory. (F. II.)
Grett. = Grettis Saga. (D. II.)
Grönd. = Benedikt Gröndal.
Grönl. Hist. Mind. = Grönlands Historiske Mindes-mærker.
Gs. = Grótta-söngr. (A. II.)
Gsp. = Getspeki Heiðreks. (A. II.)
Guðm. S. = Guðmundar Saga. (D. III.)
Gullþ. = Gull-Þóris Saga. (D. II.)
Gylfag. = Gylfa-ginning. (C. I.)
Gþl. = Gulaþings-lög. (B. II.)
Hallfr. S. = Hallfreðar Saga. (D. II.)
Hallgr. = Hallgrímr Pétrsson.
H. Ann. = Hauks-annáll. (D. IV.)
Harð. S. = Harðar Saga. (D. II.)
Har. S. Harð. = Haralds Saga Harðráða. (E. I.)
Haustl. = Haustlöng. (A. I.)
Hák. S. = Hákonar Saga. (E. I.)
Hálfs S. = Hálfs Saga. (C. II.)
Háv. = Hávarðar Saga. (D. II.)
Hb. = Hauks-bók. (H. IV.)
Hbl. = Harbarðs-ljóð. (A. I.)
Hd. = Hús-drápa. (A. I.)
Hdl. = Hyndlu-ljóð. (A. II.)
Hðm. = Hamðis-mál. (A. II.)
H.E. = Historia Ecclesiastica Islandiae. (J. I.)
Heiðarv. S. or Heið.S. = Heiðarvíga Saga. (D. II.)
Helr. = Helreið Brynhildar. (A. II.)
Hem. = Hemings-þáttr. (C. II.)
Hervar. S. = Hervarar Saga. (C. II.)
Hjalt. = Hjaltalín, Icelandic Botany.
Hkm. = Hákonar-mál. (A. III.)
Hkr. = Heimskringla. (E. I.)
Hkv. = Helga-kviða Hundingsbana. (A. II.)
Hkv. Hjörv. = Helga-kviða Hjörvarðssonar. (A. II.)
Hlt. = Háleygja-tal. (A. II.)
Hm. = Háva-mál. (A. I.)
Hom. = Homiliu-bók. (F. II.)
Hrafn. = Hrafnkels Saga. (D. II.)
Hrólfs Kr. S. = Hrólfs Saga Kraka. (C. II.)
Hs. = Harm-sól. (A. III.)
Hsm. = Hugsvinns-mál. (A. III.)
Ht. = Hátta-tal. (C. I.)
Hung. or Hv. = Hungr-vaka. (D. III.)
Húst. = Hús-tafla.
Hým. = Hýmis-kviða. (A. I.)
Hænsaþ. = Hænsa-Þóris Saga. (D. II.)
Höfuðl. = Höfuðlausn. (A. III.)
Itin. = Itinerarium or Travels of Eggert Ólafsson, 1772.
Ivar Aasen = Ivar Aasen's Dictionary, 1850.
Íb. = Íslendinga-bók. (D. I.)
Íd. = Íslendinga-drápa. (A. III.)
Íngv. = Íngvars Saga. (E. I.)
Ísl. Þjóðs. = Íslenzkar Þjóðsögur.
Játv. = Játvarðar Saga. (E. II.)
Jb. = Jóns-bók. (B. III.)
Jd. = Jómsvíkinga-drápa. (A. III.)
Jm. = Jóns-máldagi. (J. I.)
Jóh. = Jóhannes Saga. (F. III.)
Jómsv. S. or Jv. = Jómsvíkinga Saga. (E. I.)
Jónas = Jónas Hallgrímsson.
Jóns S. = Jóns Saga. (D. III.)
Jón Þorl. = Jón Þorláksson.
Js. = Járnsíða. (B. III.)
Karl. = Karla-magnús Saga. (G. I.)
K.Á. = Kristinn-réttr Árna biskups. (B. III.)
Kb. = Konungs-bók. (B. I., C. I., etc.)
Kjaln. S. = Kjalnesinga Saga. (D. V.)
Km. = Kráku-mál. (A. III.)
Knytl. = Knytlinga Saga. (E. I.)
Konr. = Konráðs Saga. (G. III.)
Korm. = Kormaks Saga. (D. II.)
Kristni S. or Kr.S. = Kristni Saga. (D. I. III.)
Krók. = Króka Refs Saga. (D. V.)
K.Þ.K. = Kristinn-réttr Þorláks ok Ketils = Kristinna-laga-þáttr. (B. I.)
Landn. = Landnáma. (D. I.)
Laur. S. = Laurentius Saga. (D. III.)
Ld. = Laxdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Lex. Mythol. = Lexicon Mythologicum.
Lex. Poët. = Lexicon Poëticum by Sveinbjörn Egilsson, 1860.
Lex. Run. = Lexicon Runicum.
Lil. = Lilja. (A. III.)
Ls. = Loka-senna. (A. I.)
Lv. = Ljósvetninga Saga. (D. II.)
Lækn. = Lækninga-bók. (H. V.)
Mag. = Magus Saga. (G. II.)
Magn. = Magnús Saga jarls. (E. II.)
Magn. S. Góða = Magnús Saga Góða. (E. I.)
Mar. = Maríu Saga. (F. III.)
Mart. = Martinus Saga. (F. III.)
Merl. = Merlinus Spá. (A. III.)
Mirm. = Mirmants Saga. (G. II.)
M.K. = Munkalíf. (J. II.)
Mkv. = Málshátta-kvæði. (A. III.)
Mork. = Morkinskinna. (E. I.)
Mött. = Möttuls Saga. (G. I.)
N.G.L. = Norges Gamle Love. (B. II.)
Niðrst. = Niðrstigningar Saga. (F. III.)
Nj. = Njála. (D. II.)
Njarð. = Njarðvíkinga Saga. (D. II.)
Njóla = Njóla, the poem.
Norge's Beskriv. = Beskrivelse Norge.
Norna G. S. = Norna-Gests Saga. (C. II.)
N.T. = New Testament.
Ný Fél. = Ny Félags-rit.
Ob. = Orms-bók. (C. I.)
Od. = Odysseifs-kvæði, prose, 1829.
Odd. or S. Odd. = Stjörnu-Odda draumr. (D. V.)
Og. = Oddrúnar-grátr. (A. II.)
O.H.L. = Ólafs Saga Helga Legendaria. (E. I.)
Or. = Ólafs-ríma. (A. III.)
Orkn. = Orkneyinga Saga. (E. II.)
Ób. = Ómaga-bálkr. (B. I.)
Ó.H. = Ólafs Saga Helga. (E. I.)
Ósv. = Ósvalds Saga. (E. II.)
Ó.T. = Ólafs Saga Trygvasonar. (E. I.)
Pass. = Passíu-Sálmar.
Páls S. = Páls Saga. (D. III.)
Pd. = Placidus-drápa. (A. III.)
Pm. = Pétrs-máldagi. (J. I.)
Post. = Postula Sögur. (F. III.)
Rafns. S. = Rafns Saga. (D. III.)
Ragn. S. = Ragnars Saga. (C. II.)
Rb. = Rímbegla. (H. III.)
Rd. = Reykdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Rétt. = Réttarbætr. (B. II.)
Rm. = Rígsmál. (A. II.)
Róm. = Rómverja Saga. (E. II.)
Safn = Safn til Sögu Islands.
Sb. = Staðarhóls-bók. (B. I.)
Sd. = Svarfdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Sdm. = Sigrdrífu-mál. (A. II.)
Sig. Breiðf. = Sigurðr Breiðfjörð.
Sig. Pét. = Sigurðr Pétrsson.
Skálda = Skálda. (H. I.)
Skáld H. = Skáld Helga-rímur. (A. III.)
Skjöld. = Skjöldunga Saga. (C. II.)
Skm. = Skírnis-mál. (A. I.)
Sks. = Konungs Skugg-sjá. (H. II.)
Sksm. = Skáldskapar-mál. (C. I.)
Skv. = Sigurðar-kviða. (A. II.)
Sl. or Sól. = Sólarljóð. (A. III.)
Snót = Snót, poems.
Stef. Ól. = Stefán Ólafsson.
Stell. = Stellu-rímur.
Stj. = Stjórn. (F. I.)
Stor. = Sona-torrek. (A. III.)
Str. = Strengleikar. (G. II.)
Sturl. = Sturlunga Saga. (D. I.)
Sverr. S. = Sverris Saga. (E. I.)
Symb. = Symbolae. (H. IV.)
Sæm. = Sæmundar Edda. (A, C. I.)
Th. = Theophilus. (F. III.)
Thom. = Thomas Saga. (E. II.)
Tl. = Tíundar-lög. (B. I.)
Tristr. = Tristrams Saga. (G. II.)
Ub. = Uppsala-bók. (C. I.)
Úlf. = Úlfars-rímur.
Valla L. = Valla Ljóts Saga. (D. II.)
Vápn. = Vápnfirðinga Saga. (D. II.)
Vd. = Vatnsdæla Saga. (D. II.)
Ver. = Veraldar Saga. (E. II.)
Verel. = Verelius, Index.
Vh. = Vatnshyrna MS.
Vidal. = Vídalíns-Postilla.
Vídal. Skýr. = Vídalín Skýringar.
Vígl. = Víglundar Saga. (D. V.)
Vínl. Þ. = Vínlands-þáttr. (E. II.)
Vkv. = Völundar-kviða. (A. II.)
Vm. = Vilkins-máldagi. (J. I.)
Vsl. = Vígslóði. (B. I.)
Vsp. = Völuspá. (A. I.)
Vtkv. = Vegtams-kviða. (A. I.)
Vþm. = Vafþrúðnis-mál. (A. I.)
Völs. S. = Völsunga Saga. (C. II.)
Yngl. S. = Ynglinga Saga. (C. II.)
Ýt. = Ynglinga-tal. (A. II.)
Þd. = Þórs-drápa. (A. I.)
Þiðr. = þiðreks Saga. (G. I.)
Þjal. = Þjalar-Jóns Saga. (G. III.)
Þkv. = Þryms-kviða. (A. I.)
Þorf. Karl. = Þorfinns Saga Karlsefnis. (D. II.)
Þorl. S. = Þorláks Saga. (D. III.)
Þorst. Hv. = Þorsteins-þáttr hvíta. (D. II.)
Þorst. Síðu H. = Þorsteins Saga Síðu Hallssonar. (D. II.)
Þorst. S. St. = þorsteins-þáttr Stangarhöggs. (D. II.)
Þorst. ux. = Þorsteins-þáttr uxafóts. (D. V.)
Þórð. = Þórðar Saga hreðu. (D. V.)
Þ.Þ. = Þingskapa-þáttr. (B. I.)
Ölk. = Ölkofra-þáttr. (D. II.)

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

absol. = absolute, absolutely
acc. = accusative
act. = active
a.d. = Anno Domini
adj. = adjective
adv. = adverb
adverb. = adverbially
allit. = alliteration, alliterative
anatom. = anatomically
ἅπ. λεγ. = ἅπαξ λεγόμενον (hapax legomenon; i.e., a word recorded only once)
A.S. = Anglo-Saxon
astron. = astronomy, astronomically
begin. = beginning
Bodl. = Bodleian
Bohem. = Bohemian
botan. = botanically
Brit. Mus. = British Museum
ch. = chapter
class. = classical
Cod. or Cd. = Codex
cognom. = cognomen
collect. = collective
compar. = comparative
compd, compds = compound, compounds
conj. = conjunction
contr. = contracted
corresp. = corresponding
cp. = compare
Dan. = Danish
dat. = dative
decl. = declined
def. = definite
defect. = defective
dep. = deponent
DeProfesser = De Herr Professer by August Corrodi, in the Zürich idiom
deriv. = derived
dict. = dictionary
dimin. = diminutive
dissyl. = dissyllabic
D.R.A. = Deutsche Rechts-alterthümer by Grimm
dub. = dubious
eccl. = ecclesiastical
Ed., Edd. = edition, editions, edited
E. Engl. Spec. = Early English Specimens
e.g. = exempli gratia
ellipt. = elliptical, elliptically
Engl. = English
esp. = especially
etc. = et cetera
etym. = etymology
f. or fem. = feminine
Fin. = Finnish
for. = foreign
Fr. = French in etymologies
Frank. = Frankish
freq. = frequent, frequently
Fris. = Frisian
Gael. = Gaelic
gen. = genitive
gener. = generally
Germ. = German
gl. or gloss. = glossary
Goth. = Gothic
Gr. = Greek
gramm. = grammar
Havn. = Havniensis
Hel. = Heliand
Icel. = Iceland, Icelander, Icelanders, Icelandic
id. = idem, referring to the passage quoted
id. = idem, referring to the translation
i.e. = id est
imperat. = imperative
impers. = impersonal
indecl. = indeclinable
indef. = indefinite
indic. = indicative
infin. = infinitive
inflex. = inflexive
intens. = intensive
intrans. = intransitive
irreg. = irregular
Ital. = Italian
l. = line
L. = Linnæus
Lat. = Latin
l.c. = loco citato
lit. = literally
Lith. = Lithuanian
Litt. = Littonian
loc. = local, locally
m. or masc. = masculine
medic. = medicine, medically
metaph. = metaphorical, metaphorically
metath. = metathesis
meton. = metonomy, metonomically
metric. = metrically
mid. H.G. = middle High German
mid. Lat. = middle Latin
milit. = military
M. Lat. = Mediæval Latin
mod. = modern
monosyl. = monosyllabic
MS., MSS. = manuscript, manuscripts
mythol. = mythology, mythologically
n. or neut. = neuter
naut. = nautical
navig. = navigation
neg. = negative
N.H.G. = New High German
no. = number
nom. = nominative
North. E. = Northern English
Norweg. = Norwegian
obsol. = obsolete
O.H.G. = Old High German
opp. = opposed
Ormul. or Orm. = Ormulum
part. = participle
partic. = particularly
pass. = passive
perh. = perhaps
pers. = person
pl. or plur. = plural
poët. = poetically
Pol. = Polish
posit. = positive
pr. or prop. = proper, properly
pref. = preface
prep., prepp. = preposition, prepositions
pres. = present
pret. = preterite
priv. = privative
pr. n. = proper name
prob. = probably
pron. = pronoun
proncd. = pronounced
proverb. = proverbially
provinc. = provincial
qs. = quasi
q.v. = quod vide
R. = Rímur
recipr. = reciprocally
redupl. = reduplicative
reflex. = reflexive
relat. = relative
S. = Saga
s.a. = sub anno
Sansk. = Sanskrit
Scandin. = Scandinavia, Scandinavian
Scot. = Scottish
signif. = signification
sing. = singular
Slav. = Slavonic
Span. = Spanish
spec. = specially
sq., sqq. = following
subj. = subjunctive
subst. = substantive
suff. = suffix
sup. = supine
superl. = superlative
s.v. = sub voce
Swed. = Swedish
temp. = temporal
termin. = termination
Teut. = Teutonic
theol. = theological, theologically
trans. = transitive
transl. = translation
trisyl. = trisyllabic
Ulf. = Ulfilas
uncert. = uncertain
unclass. = unclassical
Ups. De la Gard. = De la Garde's collection of Icel. MSS. in Upsala
v. = vide
viz. = namely
v.l. = varia lectio
Wolf. = Wolfenbüttel
þ. = þáttr

SIGNS, Etc.

=, equal or equivalent to, the same as.

[ ], between these brackets stand etymological remarks and comparisons with cognate languages.

Words in capital letters are root words or important words.

The word Norse is generally used in a peculiar sense, namely, to mark the old Norwegian idiom (or MS.) as opposed to Icelandic proper.

Historical references referring to religion, customs, life, etc. are given in chapters, and under the special name of the Saga or work cited, vide e.g. sub voce draumr and drápa; the condition of the editions has, however, made it impossible to follow this rule throughout. Philological references are given in pages.

In nouns the genitive termination is placed between the noun and gender, e.g. alda, u, = alda, gen. öldu; bára, u, = bára, gen. báru, etc.; bati, a, = bati, gen. bata; bogi, a, = bogi, gen. boga, etc. So also s, ar, jar. e.g. bekkr, s, = bekkr, gen. bekks; bekkr, jar, = bekkr, gen. bekkjar; belgr, jar, = belgr, gen. belgjar; borg, ar, = borg, gen. borgar; etc.

Compounds of nouns formed from the genitive of the noun are regarded as double words, and printed at the end of the head noun in the same paragraph, vide e.g. bekkr, bók, etc.

As to the marking of verbs the following is to be noticed:—að, or d, ð, t, tt, following immediately after a verb, are the preterite inflexions which characterise the verb; að indicates a trisyllabic preterite with að as its characteristic, e.g. baka, að, that is to say, infin. baka, pret. bakaði, sup. bakað, pres. baka: whereas d, ð, t, dd, tt, indicate a dissyllabic preterite, having the dental as characteristic, e.g. brenna, d, that is to say, infin. brenna, pret. brenndi, sup. brennt, pres. brenni; fæða, dd, that is to say, infin. fæða, pret. fæddi, etc.; bæta, tt, = bætta, pret. bætti, etc.; bægja, ð, = bægja, pret. bægði, etc. Where the verb is somewhat irregular, the form is given in full, e.g. berja, pret. barði. All verbs in this Dictionary not marked as above stated are strong, and the tenses are given in extenso. The notation as above stated is adopted from Unger's Glossaries to his editions of Sagas, and has been lately used in Fritzner's Dictionary.

The simple and accented vowels are separated; thus a and á, i and í, o and ó, u and ú, y and ý stand each by themselves; an exception, however, is made with é, because it is rare and peculiar in pronunciation. Ang, ing, ung, yng are given with the simple unaccented vowels, though they are frequently in the editions spelt with an acute (´).