N. B.—The letters between ( ) refer to the Classification of Works and Authors.



=, equal or equivalent to, the same as.

[ ], between these brackets stand etymological remarks and comparisons with cognate languages.

Words in capital letters are root words or important words.

The word Norse is generally used in a peculiar sense, namely, to mark the old Norwegian idiom (or MS.) as opposed to Icelandic proper.

Historical references referring to religion, customs, life, etc. are given in chapters, and under the special name of the Saga or work cited, vide e.g. sub voce draumr and drápa; the condition of the editions has, however, made it impossible to follow this rule throughout. Philological references are given in pages.

In nouns the genitive termination is placed between the noun and gender, e.g. alda, u, = alda, gen. öldu; bára, u, = bára, gen. báru, etc.; bati, a, = bati, gen. bata; bogi, a, = bogi, gen. boga, etc. So also s, ar, jar. e.g. bekkr, s, = bekkr, gen. bekks; bekkr, jar, = bekkr, gen. bekkjar; belgr, jar, = belgr, gen. belgjar; borg, ar, = borg, gen. borgar; etc.

Compounds of nouns formed from the genitive of the noun are regarded as double words, and printed at the end of the head noun in the same paragraph, vide e.g. bekkr, bók, etc.

As to the marking of verbs the following is to be noticed:—að, or d, ð, t, tt, following immediately after a verb, are the preterite inflexions which characterise the verb; að indicates a trisyllabic preterite with að as its characteristic, e.g. baka, að, that is to say, infin. baka, pret. bakaði, sup. bakað, pres. baka: whereas d, ð, t, dd, tt, indicate a dissyllabic preterite, having the dental as characteristic, e.g. brenna, d, that is to say, infin. brenna, pret. brenndi, sup. brennt, pres. brenni; fæða, dd, that is to say, infin. fæða, pret. fæddi, etc.; bæta, tt, = bætta, pret. bætti, etc.; bægja, ð, = bægja, pret. bægði, etc. Where the verb is somewhat irregular, the form is given in full, e.g. berja, pret. barði. All verbs in this Dictionary not marked as above stated are strong, and the tenses are given in extenso. The notation as above stated is adopted from Unger’s Glossaries to his editions of Sagas, and has been lately used in Fritzner’s Dictionary.

The simple and accented vowels are separated; thus a and á, i and í, o and ó, u and ú, y and ý stand each by themselves; an exception, however, is made with é, because it is rare and peculiar in pronunciation. Ang, ing, ung, yng are given with the simple unaccented vowels, though they are frequently in the editions spelt with an acute (´).