A LIST OF BRITISH RIVERS

About a hundred in number, contained in old Icelandic alliterative memorial verses (inscribed á-heiti, i.e. names of rivers) from MSS. of the Snorra-Edda (ii. 479, 480, of the 13th century; the verses themselves may well be of the 12th century). Most of these rivers seem to belong to the northern Scottish counties, Caithness, Ross, Moray, Sutherland, and to the north-east of England. As specimens of an attempt at identification we add about thirty names, half for Scotland and half for England, leaving the rest open. In Scotland, Örmt, Armet W.; Sekin, Shin R.; Dyrn, Durn W.; Mein, Mein W.; Skialg, Shallag W.; Nis, Ness R.; Ekla or Ekkjall, Oykill R.; Spæ, Spey R.; Nið, Nith R.; Þöll, Thuil R.; Dyna, Don R.; Njörn, Nairn R.; Bro, Brora R.; Maura, Strath More; Apardion, Aberdeen (here used of the river). In England, Tems, Thames R.; Humra, Humber R.; Dun, Don R.; Alin, Alne R.; Svöl, Swale R.; Usa, Ouse R.; Þyn, Tyne R.; Tvedda, Tweed R.; Lodda, Ludd R.; Ver, Wear R.; Ruðr, Rother R.; , Rye R.; Hrið, Reed R.; Myn, Maun R.; Mynt, Mint R. (Johnston). A few (ten or twelve) of the rivers in the verses are of other countries, being probably added for alliteration sake, e.g. Jordan, Tiber, Euphrates, Albis, Loire; these we have omitted. Some of these names also occur in old lays (Gm., Bm., Gs., Hkv.), and this list may thus afford a hint as to the age of these poems.

Alin
Apardion
Auð
Bro
Dun
Dyna
Dyrn
Eiðr
Eimir
Einstika
Ekin, Gm.
Ekla (Ekkjall, Orkn.)
Fara
Fjörm, Gm.
Fold
Freka
Gera
Gilling
Gipul, Gm.
Glit
Glöð
Gnapa
Goll
Grað, Gm.
Gömul, Gm.
Göpul, Gm.
Hjölmun (?).
Hnipul
Hnöpul
Hrið, Gm.
Hrönn (twice), Gm.
Humra
Höll, Gm.
Hörn, Gg.

Kerlaug, Gm.
Koga
Körmt, Gm.

Lodda
Luma
Maura
Mein
Merk
Morn
Móða
Myn
Mynd
Nauð
Nið
Nis
Njörn (emend. mrn, Cod.)
Numa
Nyt, Gm.
Nöt, Gm.
Ofn
Ogn (?), Hkv.
Olga
Orun, Bm.
Rennandi, Gm.
Riða
Rimr
Rín, Gm.

Ruðr, Gg.
Rögn
Rönn
Salin
Sekin, Gm.
Sið, Gm.
Skialf
Skialg
Sliðr, Gm.
Spæ
Strauma or Skrauma (?).
Strind
Strönd
Suðr
Svinn
Svöl, Gm.
Sylgr
Sömd
Tems
Tvedda
Uðr
Usa, Fms. vi.
Val
Valin
Van, Gm.
Veg (Veg-svinn in one word, Gm.)
Vella
Ver
Við, Gm.
Vil
Vin, Gm.
Vina (twice), Gm., also in Egils S.
Vind (Vönd, Gm.)
Ving
Voð
Voða
Vöð
Ylgr, Gm.
Yn
Ysa (twice).
Þjóð (Þjóð-numa in one word, Gm.)
Þrym
Þyn, Gm.
Þöll, Gm.
Örmt, Gm.


GAELIC NAMES AND NICKNAMES

Contained in the Landnama-bók (Icelandic Book of Settlement); those in the Orkn. and the Njála are left out, as being already well known. The translation and identification we leave to Celtic scholars, only noticing that these names, as well as those of the rivers above, were taken from oral tradition, not from books; the Norse form may therefore throw some light on the Celtic pronunciation of the 10th to the 12th centuries.

Bekan, 52.
Biaðmakr, 93.
Biolan, 95, 268: Biola, 41, 239.
Biöllok, 268.
Briann or Brann, 30.
Dimun, the island, 104, a double-peaked island in Broadfirth, Iceland, and in the Faroes (Lat.-Gaelic, qs. Dimons?).
Drafdritr, 33.
Dufan, 140.
Dufgus, 136; whence corrupted Dugfúss.
Dufnall, 113.
Dufniall, 298.
Duf-þakr, 33, 282.
Feilan, 8.
Fyls-(enni), 126 ; the former part may be Gaelic, cp. fyls-bein, Fms. ix. 54.
Gellir = Gilli (?), in the name of Thord Gelli.
Gilli, Gullþ.
Gliomall, 109.
Grelöð (?), 109.
Gufa (?), doubtful if Gaelic.
Hnokan, 267.
Kaðall, 116, 219.
Kaðlín, 95.
Kali (?), 331.
Kalman, 49.
Kamban, 47.
Kiallakr, 79, passim.
Kiaran, 124.
Kiartan, passim.
Kiarvalr, 298, 361, passim.
Kimbi (?), 100, prob. Gaelic.
Kolli, passim; we suspect this name, so freq. in Icel. local names, to be of Gaelic extraction.
Konall, 65, passim.
Kori, 133.
Kormakr, 73, and Korm. S.
Kormlöð, 318.
Kvaran, 58.
Kylan, 65, 66.
Lunan, 297.
Maddaðr, 93.
Meldun, 109, 113.
Melkorka, 114.
Melpatrikr, 316.
Myrgiol, 109.
Myrkiartan, 114.
Niall, passim.
Papar, Landn.
Parak, 267 (?).
Patrekr, 42 (Lat.-Gaelic).
Raforta,205.